What doesn’t a Firewall protect against?

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A firewall cannot really protect you against threats inside your network. It cannot prevent individual users with modems from dialling into or out of the network, bypassing the firewall altogether. Employee misconduct or carelessness cannot be controlled by firewalls. A firewall cannot protect against hacking from within. A firewall is just another layer of security for things like:

Viruses that spread through e-mail, such as Trojan horses, which masquerade as helpful or benign software and trick you into opening or downloading them.
Trojan horses; similar to the virus threat, it is easy to trick a user into downloading a program or opening an email attachment that can allow malicious code onto the local system.

Spyware; they can get onto your computer numerous ways such as when you open webpages (cookies/activeX) or when installing a program that's bundled with adware/spyware, therefore having closed ports doesn’t matter.

Malware, it is a combination of the words ‘malicious’ and ‘software’ and includes viruses, Trojan horses, worms, spyware/adware, phishing and pharming. Most common way to get malwares is opening E-Mail attachments and clicking URL's that are present in E-Mail's. Viruses, Trojans and worms can do a lot of bad things on your computer or in business.

Social engineering; this term has come into vogue in the past few years to describe methods that hackers use to get information from “friendly” users.

Physical outrages; like cutout of a circuit, other power shortages/failures etc.
Unsecured wireless network. The firewall will not prevent access to an otherwise unsecured wireless network. However, the firewall helps to protect the computers on your network, so if an intruder were to gain access to your network, he or she could not access your personal computer.

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